Tuesday, 11 April 2017

Online Proctoring for Remote Examination (OP4RE)

In recent years, open and online education in Europe has grown rapidly, but for many providers, it remains necessary to administer tests and exams under proctored (invigilated) conditions. Traditional forms of testing in a test center or at an institution of higher education are not always efficient, they can be expensive for both the student and the institution and as such may hinder access to, and progress in online education. Technology that facilitates online proctoring (i.e allowing students to take examinations at home) offers a possible solution to this challenge.


In this project, six higher education institutions from across Europe, and a technology service provider, will collaborate to establish guidelines on how online proctoring may be used to support secure remote examinations. The project will focus on, security and privacy, practical procedures, protocols, and the student experience. Through the collaboration of the partner institutions, these areas are studied at a European level, harmonized and confirmed. This will strengthen the transnational acknowledgement of acquired competencies and improve the access to, and flow of European students through higher education.


Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam is the overall coordinator of this KA2 Strategic Partnership Erasmus+ project. The other parties collaborating include, RISBO of the Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam (Nl), Fontys hogescholen (Nl), Wilhelm Büchner University of Applied Science Darmstadt (Ge), Hertfordshire University (GB), Universiteit Hasselt (Be), Fédération Interuniversitaire de l’Enseignement à Distance (Fr) and ProctorExam (Nl).


A public website of the project is located at: http://onlineproctoring.eu


For more information contact Professor Amanda Jefferies, School of Computer Science



Friday, 17 March 2017

Applying for Student Finance – A Parent's Perspective

If you're a parent of a university applicant and are baffled by the Student Finance System, you're not alone. Head of the Student Centre, and parent herself, Julie Kelly takes a look at what you need to know about the application process.


So you’ve trekked half way across the country attending open days, you read 15 different versions of their personal statement, and you’ve watched in amazement as they’ve received offers for a place at University. It’s now time to start thinking about the next big hurdle, applying for Student Finance.


A couple of basics to get you started:

  • The student finance application process is administered by Student Finance England (or equivalent in Wales, Scotland & NI) and is completely separate from UCAS (although they signpost to quite helpful information). UCAS will not be checking that the application for finance has been made, the responsibility for this sits with the student. Equally their chosen University will have expected the application to have been successfully made before the start of term. Without funding in place your son or daughter will be personally liable for their fees and will have no money to live off, so it’s worth keeping an eye on this!
  • Just like when they applied for University through UCAS, your son or daughter will need to complete the application process themselves. Everyone is eligible to a basic level of funding, but higher level assistance is available based on your household income, so you will also have a part to play. Student Finance eligibility works on a sliding scale, so the more money you earn, the less they will receive and of course the more the bank of mum and dad will need to take the strain. All funding is in the form of loans that have to be repaid (by the student) as the government no longer offers any non-repayable grants although some universities will offer some level of bursaries or scholarships. If this is something you are interested in (and let’s face it who wouldn’t be interested in free money!) then you need to make sure that you don’t “un-tick” the share my information box on the Bursary and Scholarship page. 

Photo of coins, pens, and paper

  • Repayments only kick in after graduation, and then only when earnings are above £21,000 (more information about this). All students can apply to get the maximum loan to cover the cost of the course (tuition fee loan), but the level of living expenses they can apply for (maintenance loan) will depend on a number of factors, e.g. whether they intend to study in London, live at home, and how much you earn. If you want to check how much they will be entitled to borrow you can check this using the Government Student Finance Calculator.

  • Give yourself plenty of time, both in terms of applying for student finance early and putting aside a decent amount of time to complete the actual application process. Student Finance England promises to assess loan applications in 6 weeks, but it’s probably not a good idea to leave applying until the summer. The application process opens in February/March each year so apply early so there is plenty of time to resolve any problems or queries. It’s important to keep checking to make sure that the status of the application changes from “submitted” to “approved”. The last thing anyone wants in September is to find out that their maintenance loan isn’t ready because of some small outstanding query.

  • They don’t need to have decided on a university at the point of application. Although they will be asked to say where they intend to study, this can be updated at a later date; either because they’ve changed their mind or if they don’t get into their first choice university. Having said this it’s vital that the new university details are updated before 1st September via their online portal. If not then the change has to be completed by the University then processed by Student Finance England which can take up to 6 weeks to process and could mean their maintenance monies are not ready for the start of term. 

  • Applying for student finance is an annual activity. Unfortunately their application does not roll forward into the next academic year, so each year your son or daughter will need to reapply for funding and each year you will need to confirm your income.
Photo of pound coins stacked


Ok, so they are about to start the application process, what do they need?

  • National insurance number – don’t be fooled by the guidance notes that suggests this is optional; Student Finance England will not release a penny until they have the national insurance number. Future loan repayments are made through salary deduction so this is critical to them. Equally you will need it when you are asked to confirm your income.

  • University post code and term dates – it’s worth getting this information ready as it will ask you for the university post code and when they intend to start university. 

  • Your email address and that of your spouse – as Student Finance England needs to confirm your household income they will need to contact you by email – if you’re anything like us, my daughter did not know my email address.

  • A rough idea about how much you earn – you might not want to share exactly how much you earn, but they do need to know whether they are eligible to apply for the means tested element, i.e. whether their household income is less than £75k.

  • Access to a printer – although you could apply on a tablet or phone, you are asked at the end of the process to print a declaration form. This is not a show stopper as the declaration will be sent to them to sign (this should arrive within six weeks although ours came through quicker than that) but it would be good to get this out of the way. Again this declaration is an important part of the process and Student Finance England will not pay ANY MONEY until they have received it. It could be worth sending this recorded delivery. 

  • Passport – it would be good to have this handy as they will need to enter their passport number – if they don’t have a passport SFE will not pay any money until their identity has been established and will therefore ask for other evidence.

  • Their bank account number and sort code – details for where their maintenance loan will be paid.

The first step will be to set up an account with Student Finance England. Once completed they will be given a Customer Reference Number “CRN” and will be asked to set up a password and a secret question and answer. It’s important to keep these login details handy as this is how they will be able to check the status of their application. Important to note as a parent you will also be asked to set up an account and will also receive a CRN of your own. They will also be given a Student Support Number a little later in the process which Student Finance England also need if you contact them with a query.

Next apply for both the tuition fees and maintenance loans. It’s all fairly straight forward, but worth just taking your time as you move through the questions. Once completed they will be sent an email to confirm their application has been received and you (and your spouse) will receive an email inviting you to set up your own account so that you can enter your income details. They are looking to confirm your last full tax year so it’s worth having your P60 or Self-Assessment tax return handy. Entering the information was all relatively painless and only took us a few minutes. Again make sure you have your national insurance number to hand as this is how they will independently verify your income details.

Once their student finance has been agreed they will received a letter in the post explaining their entitlement which outlines the amount of tuition and maintenance loans they have been awarded. It’s worth checking the details at this point and getting back in touch with Student Finance England if it looks wrong, i.e. do the loan amounts look correct? If you have any concerns you could either contact Student Finance England or the Student Finance team at their University who will have experts on hand to check assessments and provide advice.

One final hurdle to clear and that is to make sure the Declaration Form gets signed and sent back in the post to Student Finance England. This is why it's worth sending this by recorded delivery, who needs the stress of it going missing…..

That’s it, simple, what was all the fuss about?

Julie Kelly
Head of Student Centre
University of Hertfordshire

Photo Of Julie Kelly



Tuesday, 14 March 2017

Why a daily satire TV show is so difficult to get right

Image 20170313 9606 tvm5gw
Up in lights. ITV
Lyndsay Duthie, University of Hertfordshire
It was a bold scheduling move on the part of ITV, the UK’s main commercial television channel. Shifting the nightly news programme to make way for Britain’s latest attempt at a US-style late night talk show was always going to be risky. And so far, critics and viewers seem united in their response to The Nightly Show: they can barely watch. The Conversation


Taking ITV’s 10pm slot on weeknights, The Nightly Show has a 40 episode run with a revolving array of hosts, starting off with comedians David Walliams and John Bishop in the opening two weeks. (Mel and Sue, the duo who presided over The Great British Bake Off, have apparently changed their minds about appearing.) Recorded “live” at 6pm each day, the 30 minute programme aims to mimic American shows like CBS’s The Late Late Show with a mix of topical monologue and satire, celebrity chat and entertaining sketches.


But this is a demanding format which is difficult to get right. Achieving successful year round high profile chat shows requires huge resources, commitment and funds.
Ahead of the ITV’s version’s debut in February 2017, Peter Davey, the channel’s head of comedy entertainment said: “We’re really excited about launching this bold new show, and delighted that David [Walliams] will kick off what will be an eight week entertainment treat for viewers.”
But it would appear to not be such a treat. Ratings dropped sharply from 2.8m to 1.2m in the first week. Even worse hit were the viewing figures for the rescheduled news bulletin, which went to a record low.

Despite occasional interventions, ITV’s nightly news programme has been a staple of British TV screens for nearly 50 years. Other channel controllers have previously tried to move its slot in the schedule, leading to it being mockingly dubbed the “News at When?”. But there is a good commercial case for the schedule change. ITV is desperate to appeal to younger viewers and wants to create a clear alternative to BBC’s own news programme, which also airs at 10pm and has a far larger following.


As Kevin Lygo, ITV’s director of television, explained to the Guardian newspaper: “The truth is that when you’re up against a 50 times resourced juggernaut of BBC1 news, you won’t get more viewers.”


So one can understand ITV executives looking at the success of British presenter James Corden in his nightly show on American TV, and thinking, why not do the same here? But while the late night chat genre has long been a a staple of the US schedules, it is a format which has always been hard to translate in the UK.

So far, The Nightly Show has tried to stick to the formula of the successful American versions, opening with a host’s monologue, before moving on to celebrity interviews. But producing a daily program which reacts to news events every 24 hours is tough. It requires big writing teams if it is going to appear slick and effortless.


Famous presenters Jonathan Ross and Graham Norton have both been at the top of the talk show tree in the UK for many years. But they host short series of weekly programmes. They are not performing five days a week, 52 weeks a year. Nor do Norton and Ross try to mimic the US model of David Letterman and Jay Leno model. Instead, they stick to the chat and concentrate on the guests.
US late night talk shows are executed to perfection, and have a large pool of potential Hollywood A-list guests to choose from and keep viewers watching. It is much tougher for ITV to find high profile guests five times a week. After the first shows aired, some commented on Twitter that the guests all seemed to be merely publicising their own latest ITV shows.

Show time

Perhaps The Nightly Show is getting off to a rocky start because it is trying too hard to be too many things. Why experiment with different presenters every week? Wouldn’t it be better to stick with one big name host and let the audience develop a relationship with them? According to author and historian Joe Moran: “Part of the problem is that in the US there’s a complicit way in which the host interacts with the audience to give an almost conspiratorial mood that doesn’t quite translate over here.”


So is it just a matter of finding the right tone and the right host? CBS gave Corden time to develop in his new role. The channel bosses also understood that although ratings were important, the impact of what Corden was able to do on social media, with viral hits like Carpool Karaoke, gained them water cooler moments and talking points which helped develop the brand globally. But Carpool Karaoke would probably not have worked any where near as well if not for the quality of celebrities (including then first lady, Michelle Obama) taking part. It is barely conceivable that ITV would be able to deliver that sort of impact on a daily basis.

The question now is whether ITV will be brave enough to keep going with this genre, and to let it bed in. I don’t think the News at Ten will be back anytime soon. But I think viewers of the channel at that advertising peak time of 10pm will soon be enjoying the return of expensive 90 minute dramas. For now, the television cliffhanger is whether the faltering The Nightly Show will last its full eight weeks. It’s hard to put it better than Walliams himself, who turned to the camera during one broadcast to comment dryly: “And they moved the news for this …”


Lyndsay Duthie, Programme Leader for Film & Television, University of Hertfordshire


This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

How Brexit border debate could affect human trafficking into UK


Image 20170314 10724 1k2s95n
1000 Words/Shutterstock
Katerina Hadjimatheou, University of Warwick and Jennifer Lynch, University of Hertfordshire
Recent government figures estimate that there are between 10,000 and 13,000 victims of modern slavery in the UK today. A large majority of these people are trafficked in from abroad. And, as the government report shows, a significant proportion of this group, perhaps even most of them, are themselves EU citizens.
 The Conversation
While there is currently great uncertainty about how Brexit will unfold, it seems highly likely that the final settlement will involve some reinstatement of immigration controls between the UK and the EU. So, one important question is how this might affect the flow, identification, and protection of people trafficked into the UK.


Our understanding of the precise role played by migration controls in human trafficking is patchy. This is partly because trafficking is by its nature hard to measure. It’s partly because there is, as yet, no systematic research of the sort that would produce reliable evidence. And it’s partly because the increasingly politicised nature of the debate confuses an already incomplete picture.


Nevertheless, the need to migrate to escape danger, oppression and/or poverty and the restrictions placed on such migration are generally considered features common to trafficking experiences. For example, in recent years we have seen frequent assertions of a causal connection between tough border controls and increased reliance of people on illegal routes and threatening individuals.
The zealous enforcement of border controls has also been shown to hamper the identification of victims of human trafficking. Under both the Council of Europe’s Convention against Trafficking, and the UK’s most recent guidance, border forces must be proactive in spotting potential victims at the border.


But the border force’s singular focus on enforcing migration controls can make officers blind to indicators of victimhood, including some specific types of behaviour and responses to questioning, as well as interaction with travel partners. Officers looking to exclude as many illegal migrants as possible can end up focusing too much on the credibility of the travellers’ stories and not enough on their vulnerability. The consequences of the misidentification of victims of trafficking as illegal migrants can be detention, deportation and re-trafficking.

Safe migration

In light of these concerns, proposals have been voiced for the relaxation of border controls and the establishment of “safe migration” routes. Yet even if the removal of borders were politically achievable, there are reasons to be cautious in our expectations of how that might benefit victims.
Claims about the causal connection between migration control and human trafficking rest on an assumption that those trafficked are nearly always illegal migrants. But this is contradicted by the European experience. EU freedom of movement is the most ambitious border-free experiment of modern times.

However, recent estimates from the European Statistics Agency show that 65% of victims of trafficking registered in the EU are themselves EU citizens. UK records confirm this – in 2014, between half and a third of all recorded victims were EU citizens. This rises to 78% for those exploited for labour.

Politicising the debate

What should we make of this? Some have argued that EU freedom of movement actually facilitates human trafficking within Europe. For example, it is widely recognised that the removal of borders has increased transnational criminal activity including human trafficking. It may also make identification of victims harder at borders. In its 2015 report on modern slavery in the UK, the Centre for Social Justice made this claim:
Free movement has made it even tougher to spot victims of modern slavery from the EU as they arrive in destination countries legally. This means [European Economic Area] citizens do not come to the attention of either police or immigration and borders agencies.
This is echoed by soon to be published research we carried out in 2015 with border force officers working as anti-trafficking first responders at Heathrow Airport. They reported being required to move EU citizens through the border so quickly that it was almost impossible for them to identify victims.

Real victims are getting lost as the debate becomes politicised. John Gomez/Shutterstock

The conflict between border control and anti-trafficking they describe is not the one referred to typically – namely the risk that victims of trafficking are miscategorised as mere illegal migrants – rather, it is the risk that victims of trafficking are wrongly categorised as legal migrants.
How can we square this with the preceding claims that the implementation of national borders aggravates trafficking? Both may be correct. But attempts to move beyond mere speculation are currently hindered by the politicised nature of the debate. As so often happens with the controversial issue of immigration, arguments are frequently put to the service of preexisting political positions.
For example, it is unsurprising that border force officers, whose professional identity is premised on the need to enforce immigration and customs regulations, would see stricter border controls as an obvious solution to the problem of trafficking. Equally, the Centre for Social Justice is a right-leaning think tank which is sceptical about the benefits of free movement.


On the other hand, “safe migration” routes and similar solutions are typically championed by those who are already troubled by the contribution of migration controls to human suffering.
If we want to be prepared for the changes to come, we need research that can cut through the politics and deliver a much broader, more contextually informed and better evidenced understanding of the drivers of human trafficking into the UK.


Katerina Hadjimatheou, Research Fellow Interdisciplinary Ethics Research Group, University of Warwick and Jennifer Lynch, Early Career Research Fellow, University of Hertfordshire

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

Tuesday, 21 February 2017

Big data is adding a whole new dimension to public spaces – here's how

Silvio Carta, University of Hertfordshire
Most of us encounter public spaces in our daily lives: whether it’s physical space (a sidewalk, a bench, or a road), a visual element (a panorama, a cityscape) or a mode of transport (bus, train or bike share). But over the past two decades, digital technologies such as smart phones and the internet of things are adding extra layers of information to our public spaces, and transforming the urban environment.


Traditionally, public spaces have been carefully designed by urban planners and architects, and managed by private companies or public bodies. The theory goes that people’s attention and behaviour in public spaces can be guided by the way that architects plan the built environment. Take, for example, Leicester Square in London: the layout of green areas, pathways and benches makes it clear where people are supposed to walk, sit down and look at the natural elements. The public space is a given, which people receive and use within the terms and guidelines provided.


While these ideas are still relevant today, information is now another key material in public spaces. It changes the way that people experience the city. Uber shows us the position of its closest drivers, even when they’re out of sight; route-finding apps such as Google Maps helps us to navigate through unfamiliar territory; Pokemon Go places otherworldly creatures on the pavement right before our eyes.
A virtual world. https://paintimpact.com/ (Flickr)., CC BY

But we’re not just receiving information – we’re also generating it. Whether you’re “liking” something on Facebook, searching Google, shopping online, or even exchanging an email address for Wi-Fi access; all of the data created by these actions are collected, stored, managed, analysed and brokered to generate monetary value.

Data deluge

But as well as creating profits for private companies, these data provide accurate and continuous updates of how society is evolving, which can be used by governments and designers to manage and design public spaces.


Before big data, the architects designed spaces based on mere assumptions about how people were likely to use them. Success was measured by “small”, localised data methods, such as post-occupancy evaluations, where built projects are observed during their use and assessed against the designers’ original intentions, as well as fitness for purpose and performance. For the most part, the people who used public spaces did not have a say in how they were designed or managed.


Now, public space is becoming increasingly dynamic. Information about consumption is being used to shape production, in a hybrid process called “prosumption”. One example of this is TV competitions where viewers have an active role in deciding who is going to remain or leave the show. In an urban context, there’s the TfL Open Data system, where all data produced by Oyster Card holders are made available for people to raise awareness, develop new programmes, visualise data or analyse statistics.

Digital cities

And this is just the beginning. A growing number of projects are demonstrating the potential impacts of big data on our experience of public spaces. For instance, engineering firm Arup came up with a “net” of public data which allows individuals to see their direct impact on urban data in real time. And designer Keiichi Matsuda offers a strong visualisation of possible future scenarios, where the digital and physical aspects of space are synthesised.

If it is true that cities are increasingly becoming spatial social networks of interaction, we are all in front of a crossroad: then we can either continue to unthinkingly produce a deluge of data that will result in the space we live within, or we can start taking control of it. If we all use the power and potentiality of big data and ubiquitous computing in a clever way, we can actively contribute to the making of the public realm, by inputting data and generating information consciously.


By being aware of, say, the wider impact of our Twitter feeds, Facebook responses or personal information sharing, we can make data analysts and brokers go in one specific direction or another. For instance, the code-animated graphics on the giant LCD screens in Times Square respond to the time of the day, the amount of people in the square and the events happening in a specific time. People in the square can change the configuration of the backdrop by moving around the different parts of the public space.


If members of the public are aware that their (data-producing) actions are listened to, collected and used to shape decisions, then they can become an active part of that process. Projects such as Live Singapore! – which provides a platform for the collection, elaboration and distribution of real-time data about what’s going on in the city – show how people can use the urban data they help to create, to better understand their city and inform their actions.


We still are quite far from the day when public spaces are shaped as the people desire, in real time, with a high level of customisability. Becoming more conscious of how individual actions can shape public spaces is just the first step.


The Conversation
Silvio Carta, Senior Lecturer and Chair of the Design Research Group, University of Hertfordshire
This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

Studying with Dyslexia

My name is Lucey, I’m 19 years old, I study BA (Hons) photography at The University Of Hertfordshire and I have dyslexia, dyspraxia and Asperger's syndrome. In this blog post I am going to be talking about how dyslexia can interfere with my studies but also how I try to get around these difficulties. 


Dyslexia is a specific learning difficulty that mainly affects the development of literacy and language related skills. Dyslexia is not a disease, it is something you are born with and it often runs in families. For example, both my Dad and Brother have it as well as me. My dyslexia wasn’t diagnosed until half year through year 12. This meant I went through my GCSE’s and some of sixth form with no help. This really annoys me as I feel it should have been spotted by my many teachers over the years. But it also makes me proud of myself because, even though I have only recently started getting proper support for my learning disabilities, I have made it through half of my degree.


Close up of a hand writing

Some of the things I struggle with are: remembering key dates and key words including their spellings. Spelling in general so I tend to use spell check quite a lot, which can’t be used in exams. Keeping calm when I get something wrong as it can be quite upsetting for me and therefore sometimes it just makes me want to cry. Structuring my written work so that it makes sense. Remembering what I was going to say/write as I will have a good point in my head and then it will go if I get distracted. 

Getting/using the wrong word meaning I will have a word in my head to use but something goes wrong between my head and my hand so I write something else meaning it doesn’t make sense to other people. Concentrating on anything because background noise such as talking can really distract me. Organising my work so that I get things done on time as I am not very good with my time and I tend to abandon my work. Understanding what a question is asking me. Making notes and re-reading my own writing.

However, I have found quite a few things that help me: Using colour coding in my work, I will write one sentence in black, one in blue and one in red for example, this is because if I write a whole paragraph in black it tends to all merge together when I look at it. I type my work up so that I can actually read it when it comes to things such as revision. Sometimes simple rhymes can help to remember key information, as long as they are short. 

Diagrams can also be quite useful as I am a visual learner so if I can see the information in a picture it can help. Putting text onto coloured paper can help me to read it, blue paper really helps me to read and on my computer, I have software that changed the colour of the screen so I can read it better. Mind maps can sometimes help me but not always.


Page of a dictionary with the word focus highlighted


If you feel that you have dyslexia, you can visit Student Wellbeing in the Hutton Hub on College lane for advice. They offer a testing service where you can be tested for dyslexia (this does come at a cost). If you find out that you do have dyslexia, then you can apply for DSA (disabled students allowance) meaning you may be entitled to equipment and software to help with your studies. You may also be entitled to a study skills tutor or/and mentor. These are people who are able to help you keep on track of your work, help you understand your briefs as well as making sure you are generally well. 

There is also more information available on the British Dyslexia Association website. I also created a YouTube video a few years ago about my dyslexia that may or may not be useful (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UTEiqhl9dm0&t=7s). I hope you have found this blog post helpful and if you do have dyslexia, remember, it does not hold you back because you can do anything you put your mind to!

Lucey



Hi, I’m Lucey, a member of the social street team at The University Of Hertfordshire. I am a 2nd year studying BA (hons) photography. I usually live in Cornwall, so I have come a long way to the uni but I feel it’s worth it. Come say hi if you see me around campus.

How music benefits children

Dawn Rose, University of Hertfordshire
Popular ideas, such as the “Mozart effect” – the idea that listening to classical music improves intelligence – has encouraged the belief that “music makes you smarter”.


This interest in the relationship between musical aptitude on ability and intelligence has been around for some time. But despite these beliefs being pretty widespread, there is still no conclusive evidence to actually prove that listening to certain types of music really can improve your intelligence.


In 1974, music researchers Desmond Sergeant and Gillian Thatcher said that:
All highly intelligent people are not necessarily musical, but all highly musical people are apparently highly intelligent.
And “apparently” is the key word here, because the evidence regarding musical listening in itself is mixed. Research has shown that listening to music shows an improvement in certain kinds of mental tasks. But these are specifically short-term improvements involving “spatial-temporal reasoning” skills – puzzle solving type tasks.

Listening vs playing

But while listening to music is all well and good, what about actually playing it? Research that focuses on how or if playing a musical instrument can impact on intelligence, often looks at how learning in one area can lead to improvements in other areas – an idea known as “transfer effects”.
This is the idea that learning to play the violin, or the drums, could help children to do better in their spellings or a science project. And this is in part the reason why some parents naturally encourage their children to learn an instrument – because of a belief that it will in some way make them more intelligent.


While some studies have shown how musical training can shape brain development. And that improvements in small motor skills and general intelligence have been linked to musical training. A recent review suggests that actual evidence supporting this idea of “transfer effects” is limited at present.


But despite these finds, there is still a wealth of evidence suggesting musical learning is beneficial. And with this in mind, drawing from my experience as a professional musician (drummer), music teacher and performing artist, I decided to investigate the effects of individual musical instrument learning on aspects of cognitive and behavioural development.


I also looked at the impact on “socio-emotional” development, which includes the child’s experience, expression, and management of emotions, as well as the ability to establish positive and rewarding relationships with others.
Not just a racket. Shutterstock

All the children who took part in the study had typical school group music lessons, but half of them had also chosen to learn an instrument individually for the first time that year.
The results showed that children who had started individual music lessons developed a better awareness of their “aim” and “force” in relation to their own motor skills as well as improving their “fluid intelligence” – which is the ability to solve new problems, use logic in new situations, and identify patterns.


This suggests that musical instrument learning encourages the development of a physical sense of self in relation to the how we use objects in the world around us, as well as developing a specific kind of intelligence that is used in problem solving.

Music and social development

As part of my research, I also wanted to understand whether parents and teachers noticed any changes over the year in terms of the children’s socio-emotional well-being. The results showed that the children who had chosen to learn an instrument were considered by both their parents and teachers to be less anxious than those who had received only group lessons.


These children were also thought to internalise their problems less compared to the children who had only received the group sessions.
Music can help children to develop skills such as nonverbal communications. Pexels.

This is also reflected in my research looking at adult musicians, who explained that the “social structures” surrounding musical learning are the bits that they most appreciate, and have had the biggest impact on their lives.


This includes the opportunities to travel, the exchanges of culture among friends around the world, and their ongoing ability to be foster creativity in their lives through music.

Musical learning

It is clear then that music can have a big role to play when it comes to children’s learning. Not necessarily just in terms of intelligence, but also in term of their physical development and social well-being.


Research also shows how musical learning can help children to apply themselves, as well supporting the processes involved in teamwork and appreciation of working towards shared goals.


Valuing music education includes nurturing the development of these abilities, and these skills and mindsets. Which is why developing a culture of creativity and musical learning in our schools should be a key part of children’s lives.


The Conversation
Dawn Rose, Researcher in the Psychology of Music and Dance, University of Hertfordshire


This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.